Huawei

Dr. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard's picture

Finding Greatness in China’s Greater Bay Area (GBA), part II: Implications for IFDI and OFDI

China’s Greater Bay Area (GBA), detailed in my last blog, appears an obvious magnet for inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and catalyst for outward FDI (OFDI). Beijing’s backing, infrastructure improvements, supportive government science and technology (S&T) policies, the GBA’s surfeit of supply networks, and the GBA’s scale and diversity should attract inward FDI (IFDI). The GBA’s role as a financial center and the relaxation of barriers to outward capital flows promise greater OFDI. Some question the GBA’s ability to realize its lofty aims given myriad barriers to internal flows, the vagueness of government plans, and dearth of true technology leaders.

MNCs in the News-2021-July

China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) reports strong inward foreign direct investment (FDI) growth over the first half of 2021 relative to 2020. China MOFCOM spokesperson assures foreign investors that China’s national security review process for FDI will be done selectively and carefully and that China is still open. Ericsson says declining results in China affected by Swedish government’s decision to ban Huawei and ZTE from its 5G network. Reduced outward FDI (OFDI) activity by Chinese firms for various reasons including Covid is dramatically reducing their foreign currency-denominated borrowings. The United Kingdom is reconsidering the involvement of Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) China General Nuclear in two British nuclear power plants. Chinese President Xi Jinping highlights Belt and Road Initiative in conversations with leaders from Ukraine, Turkey, and Barbados. Japanese OFDI deal counts and volumes show notable increase in the 2nd quarter of 2021. Japanese government moves as well as the risk of boycotts and investment divestitures drive Japanese textile industry to work to purge its supply chain from human rights abuses. In the face of a social media backlash and the risk of a boycott, Japan’s Toyota once again ceases PAC donations to members of the United States (US) Congress that denied the legitimacy of the 2020 US Presidential election. Korea’s Minister for Science and ICT supports tax on overseas platform companies while warning of potential overseas taxes on Korean companies. Korea paying increasing attention to country’s OFDI flows, with some worrying it might lead to deindustrialization and unemployment.

Dr. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard's picture

The Digital Silk Road, part II-Dialing Down the Hyperbole

My last blog supplied a basic overview of China’s Digital Silk Road (DSR) initiative, part of its larger Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This blog represents a first cut at detailing the DSR. Unfortunately, as with the BRI, it is quite challenging to do so well. Reasons include the non-existence of a public, official list of DSR projects, the misclassification of technology-related foreign direct investment (FDI) in areas such as smartphone manufacturing and semiconductor packing and testing operations as DSR-space FDI even though they have nothing to do with connectivity, and the unwillingness of participant countries to disclose the terms of their contracting deals with China.

Dr. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard's picture

The Digital Silk Road, part I-Cloudy Networked World Calling

China’s Digital Silk Road (DSR), which is part of the larger Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), came into being in 2015 and accelerated after 2017. Broadly speaking, the DSR promotes connectivity in the information and communication technology (ICT) space and encompasses projects relating to artificial intelligence, cloud computing, fintech (e-payments), smart and safe cities, and telecommunications. It is not entirely clear how many countries are participating in the DSR, though it has been reported that 16 countries have signed DSR Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) with China.

MNCs in the News-2021 January

China receives the largest amount of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2020. China’s 2020 revised catalog of encouraged FDI takes effect increasing the number of encouraged sectors. China issues rules to counteract foreign extraterritorial sanctions affecting its nationals and companies. Renewable energy investments dominate China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) energy infrastructure investments in 2020, though coal remains prominent. India makes ban on dozens of Chinese mobile phone apps permanent due to national security and data privacy concerns. China asks India to clarify its permanent ban against Chinese mobile apps. Japan creates English-language, one stop shop to help foreign financial firms set up operations in Japan. United States (US) sanctions against Huawei and limits on Huawei’s involvement in foreign telecommunications infrastructure projects led Japan’s Sumitomo to turn elsewhere for business. Brexit deal between United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) will keep Nissan producing electric vehicles in the UK. Japan unconvinced Korean President Moon Jae-In’s labeling of a 2018 Supreme Court decision on corporate assets as “undesirable” will solve anything. The head of GM Korea emphasizes labor issues as one of the factors that reduce South Korea’s appeal as a destination for FDI. SK Innovation to invest $895 million into a battery plant in Georgia, a move some feel is about winning a case before the US International Trade Commission. Daewoo Engineering & Construction wins major port facility contracting deal in Iraq. Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power gets contract for major dams in Pakistan.

MNCs in the News-2020 December

China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) release revised 2020 catalog of encouraged industries for foreign direct investment (FDI). China’s NDRC issues rules relating to FDI national security reviews. China’s Standing Committee of National People’s Congress considering amendment to criminal law that would increase prison terms for intellectual property rights (IPR) crimes. Chinese outward FDI (OFDI) in Latin America in 2020 a bright spot versus Chinese OFDI (COFDI) in other regions like Europe. China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs stresses at news briefing that FDI in Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and CPEC has not declined with many projects showing good results despite Covid-19. United States (US) Congress to provide billions of dollars to fund removal of ZTE and Huawei equipment from US telecommunication carriers’ systems. Japan not succeeding in attracting foreign financial firms due to tax, red tape, language barriers, and other factors. Japan 5G players gain potential new openings due to global crackdown on Chinese companies such as Huawei and ZTE. United Kingdom (UK) and European Union (EU) post-Brexit deal may not prevent Japanese carmakers from leaving the UK. Japanese group to supply $1.8 billion for coal-fired power plant in Vietnam despite complaints about the environmental impact of the plant. Korea Fair Trade Commission (KFTC) will administer a survey to Google Play Store users to accelerate its review of Google’s plan to increase application transactions to 30 percent. Hyundai Heavy Industries Holdings receives Chinese government approval for its $1.8 billion acquisition of Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering. Korea electric vehicle (EV) battery makers move to diversify away from China, turning to other countries and local firms for raw materials and components. LG Group has signed a major investment deal with Indonesia that would facilitate its access to EV battery raw materials and product.

MNCs in the News-2020 October

China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) says that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) increased 5.2 percent for the first nine months of 2020 when compared to the same period the prior year. China’s National People’s Congress Standing Committee approves revised export control law. Germany says reciprocity needed if there is to be a European Union-China investment agreement and notes barriers facing European companies in China remain too high. State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of the State Council points out Central State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) contribution to China and the realization of is 13rd Five-Year Plan. Sweden bans Huawei and ZTE from its core 5G mobile networks. Italy prevents Fastweb, the Italian unit of Swisscom, from using Huawei equipment in its core network. Japan will not participate in US initiative to block Chinese companies from participating in its telecommunications systems. Japan’s NEC Corp. will support United Kingdom government in its effort to develop a next generation 5G wireless network. Consortium led by Japan’s Sumitomo Corp. will develop massive $4.29 billion smart-city project in Hanoi. Mitsubishi Motors will work with Thailand agency to develop system that would allow electric vehicle batteries to power homes. Korean Fair Trade Commission to set up plan to investigate Google for potential abuses of its mobile operating system. Seoul to require Korea Resources Corp. to sell off certain assets to improve its financial condition. Samsung Fire & Marine and Samsung Life face criticisms for support of coal projects and investments through project financing, bonds, and insurance underwriting. Korea’s Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction signs $2.2 billion contract with Vietnam’s VAPCO for massive coal power plant.

MNCs in the News-2020-September

China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) issues rules relating to China’s long-discussed “unreliable entities” list. MOFCOM tells foreign companies not to worry about unreliable entities list as it is not targeted at any specific country or company. China’s State Administration for Market Regulation is preparing to launch an antitrust investigation into Google relating to Google’s alleged abuse of the Android mobile operating system’s dominant position. MOFCOM, China’s National Bureau of Statistics, and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange issue report showing Chinese outward foreign direct investment (FDI) fell 4.3 percent year-over-year in 2019. Chinese outward FDI (OFDI) in the United States (US) plummets to record lows because of Covid-19 and US-China political frictions. Indian Minister says there will be no blanket ban on all Chinese mobile apps, nor will Chinese companies be excluded from 5G contracts for wireless equipment. The tightening of US restrictions on the export of semiconductors will have potent adverse effects on Japanese companies. Frictions relating to the fees Apple takes in conjunction with its App stores have sparked regulatory attention in Japan. Covid-19 and the resignation of former Prime Minister Abe Shinzo are hindering the expansion of Japanese OFDI in Africa. Hitachi may terminate its multi-billion-dollar project in the United Kingdom (UK) to build two nuclear reactors because of a failure to obtain UK government support to cover rising project costs. Korean semiconductor firms will suffer big loss of business due to new US restrictions on the export of semiconductors to Huawei. Korea Fair Trade Commission apparently sends signal to Google that it is being watched for its app store fee collection practices. Korea’s Hyundai Engineering & Construction led consortium wins $573 million railway project in the Philippines.

MNCs in the News-2020 June

China Ministry of Commerce data shows respectable year-over-year inward foreign direct investment growth (FDI) in April and May, with some hoping for continued growth in the 2nd half of the year. China’s new development initiatives for its Western regions are not succeeding in attracting inward FDI (IFDI) for both business and political reasons. The China Securities Regulatory Commission will look to allow big Chinese commercial banks into investment banking so they can help China fend off the growing challenge from foreign investment banking firms. The United States (US) Pentagon has submitted a list of 20 Chinese companies with ties to China’s military that operate “‘directly or indirectly’” in the US. The Indian government bans almost 5 dozen mobile apps. India’s state government of Maharashtra freezes investment proposals from three Chinese businesses. Japan adds select medical fields to the list of areas requiring special FDI reviews. Japan moves to allocate funds to domestic firms so they have a greater chance to participate in the 5G wireless technology race. Japan’s Kirin Holding will commission an audit of its Burmese joint venture (JV) partner over allegations its JV channels funds to Myanmar’s military. Japan is contemplating Indonesian proposals that Japan participate in its Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail which is delayed and overbudget. The Korean Communication Commission announces that Google will revise select YouTube subscription practices following a large fine and negative ruling. South Korea outward FDI, which favors North America, plunged dramatically in March. Potential for Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction to start its Indonesian Jawa Thermal Power Plant Construction Project increases after project based second feasibility study. US Presidential election increases pressure on Korean carmakers and tiremakers to invest more in the US.

MNCs in the News-2020 May

China’s recently issued Guideline regarding its economy contains numerous favorable, albeit general, offerings for foreign direct investment (FDI). To retaliate against United States (US) exports controls against Huawei, China readies itself to add US companies to an “unreliable entity list” which may subject them to various sanctions. US Chamber of Commerce decries potentially excessive measures by US government to move supply chains away from China. United Kingdom looks to reduce Huawei involvement in its 5G network with Huawei potentially being removed from all telecommunications infrastructure by 2023. Chinese contractors plan to make substantial progress on Indonesia’s Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail over the balance of 2020. US pressure influences Israel to reject Hong Kong firm’s bid on strategically located, large-scale desalination plant. Japan categorizes firms into three groups as part of its effort to clarify what review processes apply to FDI pursuant to its Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act. New Japanese law requires technology companies operating e-commerce websites and apps to submit annual reports, notifications of contract changes, and establish complaint processes. In quest for supply chain resiliency, Japan will provide subsides to encourage Japanese firms to return to Japan or move to Southeast Asia. Realized inward FDI into Korea in the first quarter 2020 plunges over similar period last year due to shorter worker hours, higher minimum wages, and other factors. South Korean parliament passes legislation that likely forces content providers to share network costs with local internet service providers. US support for the Economic Prosperity Network raises fears among Korean companies they will be pushed to shift FDI to the US. Korean firm to make huge investment in UAE pipeline as part of its consortium’s winning bid.

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